Optical fiber cables are made up of thousands of fiber elements.

And a fib element is as thin as a human hair.

Optical fiber carries information in the form of light.

basic behavior of light

When light passes through a medium, its speed changes, and this change is expressed by the refractive index.

This variation in the speed of light leads to another interesting phenomenon called refraction.

How do optical fibers transmit information such as phone calls or Internet signals?

Any information can be displayed as zero and one, suppose you want to send a text message by writing hello from mobile, first this word will be changed as zero and one in the corresponding bianary code, after that Your mobile phone will transmit these zero and one in the form of electromagnetic waves. One is transmitted as high frequency and zero low frequency waves, your local cell tower catches these electromagnetic waves. If the magnetic wave on this tower is of high frequency, then a light pulse is produced, otherwise no pulse is produced. Now these pulses can be easily transmitted through optical fiber cables. Light pulses carrying information have to pass through a complex network of cables to reach their destination, for this purpose the entire globe is covered with optical fiber cables . Those cables have been laid inside the land and under the sea.

Mainly mobile service providers maintain these underground cables. AT&T, orange and verizon are among the few global companies that own underwater cable networks.

If the optical does not reach any part of the globe, then that part will be isolated from the Internet or mobile communication system.

If we do optics fiber cable with traditional copper cable, then optical fiber cable is better in every way.

Optical fiber cable provides a longer band width, and transmits data at a much faster rate than copper cable, because the speed of light is always faster than the speed of electrons. The flow of electrons in copper cables also creates a magnetic field outside the cable, which can lead to an electromagnetic deadlock. On the other hand the light which passes through optical cables is always captured in the fiber . In this way there is no scope for the effect of external signal.

An interesting feature of optical fiber cables is that a light signal that enters from next to it has little chance of traveling along the cable. Thus optical cables provide high security for the data.

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